to the world of music archive

the world of music 44, 2002-1

Indigenous Popular Music in North America:
Continuations and Innovations

Guest Editor: Karl Neuenfeldt

ISSN 0043-8774
ISBN 3-86135-730-5

 

Content

Articles

Karl Neuenfeldt
An Overview of Case Studies of Contemporary Native American Music in Canada, the United States of America and on the Web

Beverley Diamond
Native American Contemporary Music: The Women 

Christopher A. Scales
The Politics and Aesthetics of Recording: A Comparative Canadian Case Study of Powwow and Contemporary Native American Music

Paula Conlon
The Native American Block Flute: Convergence and Collaboration as Exemplified by Ute/Navajo Musician R. Carlos Nakai

Elaine Keillor
Amerindians at the Rodeos and Their Music

Annette Chrétien
“Under the Double Eagle”: From Military March to Metis Miziksharing

Karl Neuenfeldt
www.nativeamericanmusic.com: Marketing  Recordings in an Interconnected World

Anna Hoefnagels
Powwow Songs: Traveling Songs and Changing Protocol

Klisala Harrison
The Kwagiulth Dancers: Addressing Intellectual Property Issues at Victoria's First Peoples Festivals

 

Book Reviews (Jonathan Stock, ed.)

Jonathan Stock
Whither Historical Ethnomusicology?

Jim Samson
J. Lawrence Witzleben. “Silk and Bamboo” Music in Shanghai: The Jiangnan Sizhu Instrumental Ensemble Tradition.

Reis Flora
Bonnie C. Wade. Imaging Sound: An Ethnomusicological Study of Music, Art, and Culture in Mughal India

Keith Howard
Joseph S. C. Lam. State Sacrifices and Music in Ming China: Orthodoxy, Creativity, and Expressiveness

Jadranka Vazanová
Risto Pekka Pennanen. Westernisation and Modernisation in Greek Popular Music

Books briefly mentioned, compiled by Jonathan Stock


Recording Reviews (Gregory F. Barz,  ed.)

Hiromi Lorraine Sakata
Afghanistan (On Marco Polo’s Road: The Musicians of Kunduz and Faizabad) and Nastaran: Ensemble Kaboul, artistic direction and texts by Laurent Aubert and Khaled Arma

Ursula Hemetek
Kosovo Roma: Glasba kosovskih Romov / Music of the Gypsies from Kosovo, compiled and annotated by Svanibor Pettan

Sydney Hutchinson
Calypso in New York: Lord Invader, notes in English by John Cowley, recorded by Moses Asch from 1946 to 1961 and Calypso Awakening: The Emory Cook Collection, 1956-1962, notes by Kenneth Bilby and Keith Warner

Peter Manuel
India: Traveling Artists of the Desert: The Vernacular Musical Culture of Rajasthan. Fieldworker: Keiji Azami

Terry E. Miller
Thailand: Ceremonial and Court Music from Central Thailand. Fieldworker: James Upton

Chou Chiener
From China’s S.W. Borders: Minority Dances, Songs, and Instrumental Music of Yunnan, Li Wei and Zhang Xingrong, producers; English text by Helen Rees and Amy Catlin

Paddy Bush
Madagascar, Awakening the Spirits: Music in Tromba and Bilo Trance Rituals. Field recordings by August Schmidhofer from 1986-96

Maria Hnaraki
Vocal Music in Crete. Produced by Tulia Magrini

About the Contributors

 

Abstracts

An Overview of Case Studies of Contemporary Native American Music in Canada, the United States of America and on the Web
Karl Neuenfeldt

This issue of the world of music presents case studies of Native American music in Canada, the United States of America, and on the World Wide Web. Similar to the music of other settler-colony, Indigenous peoples worldwide (e.g. New Zealand Maori, Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders), Native American music is notable for skilfully combining introduced/imposed forms with Indigenous aesthetics, themes and instrumentation. These articles highlight the eclecticism and fluidity of Contemporary Native American music, especially in the context of notions and processes of hybridity and collaborative cultural production.

Native American Contemporary Music: The Women
Beverley Diamond

This article explores issues raised in interviews with traditional and Contemporary Native American musicians and recording artists of the 1990s. It exemplifies how they view their roles vis à vis traditional gender structures and community obligations, how they draw upon different media to communicate their messages, and how they use their work as a form of social action. Their narratives reveal a wide variety of strategies by which they negotiate the double consciousness and multiple relationships of their lives, balancing historically rooted values and traditions with modern ones. I attempt to develop a feminist interpretation that is respectful of the cultural values these women expressed in their conversations with me.

The Politics and Aesthetics of Recording: A Comparative Canadian Case Study of Powwow and Contemporary Native American Music
Christopher A. Scales

Recording studios exist at the intersection of musical creation and commerce, a commercial institution in the business of creating aesthetic products. The intersection is further complicated when Native North Americans enter the studio to record as the studio then becomes a place of intercultural contact, a meeting ground where meaning is jointly constructed and contested. This mutual construction is embedded within both typical Fourth World power relations as well as the power structure created by the studio as a corporate/creative entity. This article employs a broadly comparative approach to explore both the activity of studio recording and the structural potentials and limitations of the recording studio as a unique site for Native American musical creation. Borrowing Bourdieu’s concept of “social fields,” a “Contemporary Native music” recording session and a powwow recording session are examined through an analysis of the differing interpersonal relationships and aesthetic discourses surrounding these two processes. These two “musical fields” are distinguished and defined by the relationship between musical artist and record producer regarding perceived levels of cultural knowledge, musical authenticity, and socioeconomic power.

The Native American Flute: Convergence and Collaboration as Exemplified by R. Carlos Nakai
Paula Conlon

This article will trace the history of the Native American flute with external block, looking at its traditional function, construction, distribution, decline and rejuvenation, culminating with the multi-tiered use of the Native American flute at the dawn of the twenty-first century. Recent developments in the evolution of the Native American flute from a private courtship ritual to a more public expression of Native identity allow for an interaction of musical styles. Ute/Navajo flutist R. Carlos Nakai describes his music as “contemporary traditional,” stating that he builds on the memories of his heritage, utilizing the experiences that surround him to revitalize the ancient stories. The efforts of Nakai as an emissary connecting the Native American flute to a myriad of other cultures will be examined.

Amerindians at the Rodeos and Their Music
Elaine Keillor

After the First Peoples of North America adopted the horse in the Plains and Plateau regions, early contact written documentation and oral indigenous testimony refer to a range of songs associated with horses such as Riding Songs. With the demise of the buffalo, the life style of these peoples changed drastically and they became involved in ranching and rodeo. Although the original circumstances for singing certain kinds of songs connected with the horse were no longer available, Plains/Plateau persons involved in ranches and rodeos continued to sing, often using Horse Dance songs and Riding Songs. They were also using forms of ‘rubbaboos’ which included Euro-Canadian/American folksongs of rodeo/ranching life, otherwise often called cowboy songs. These two streams of songs associated with the horse can be detected in contemporary songs of Native performers such as Buffy Sainte-Marie, Dave Schildt, and Tim Ryan.

Under the Double Eagle: From Military March to Métis Miziksharing
Annette Chrétien

“Under the Double Eagle” examines the question of Métis identity through local, Métis musical performance practices. As an inherent component of Métis identity, music-making in a small Northern Ontario community, Mattawa, serves as a vehicle through which a deeper understanding of connections between music, Métis intellectual traditions and spiritual beliefs inform contemporary Métis identities. This is accomplished by tracing the path of a 19th century military march that eventually found its way to this community.

www.nativeamericanmusic.com: Marketing Recordings in an Interconnected World
Karl Neuenfeldt

The advent of the Internet presents challenges and opportunities for Indigenous peoples, in this instance web sites used to market North American Indian music recordings. Three web sites are examined to reveal various strategies and tactics used to present recordings to potential consumers within the context of web-based capitalism and a “circuit of culture” centred on music. The sites are shown to combine aspects of culture, commerce and creativity and to offer recordings ranging from ‘traditional’ to ‘contemporary’ music. In some instances they also are shown to be successful collaborations between Native American and non-Native American marketers, artists and consumers.

Powwow Songs: Traveling Songs and Changing Protocol
Anna Hoefnagels

Based on interviews with Native American powwow musicians in southwestern Ontario, this article examines the issues around song sharing and the cultural protocol that is expected in performing music created by other musicians. It demonstrates the roles that individual musicians play in the transmission of this genre, highlights the expectations surrounding the transmission of powwow music, and illustrates the impact of commercial recordings and portable recording equipment on the dissemination of this music genre. This article illustrates the dynamism and vitality of this music and highlights the ways in which technology has impacted on traditional song sharing protocol.

The Kwagiulth Dancers: Addressing Intellectual Property Issues at Victoria’s First Peoples Festival
Klisala Harrison

This article examines how the Kwagiulth Dancers, a Kwakwaka’wakw dance group, negotiate various intellectual property issues at their presentations of music and dance for the First Peoples Festival, arguably Canada’s largest indigenous arts festival. In it, I discuss Kwagiulth Dancers’ speeches on traditional Kwakwaka’wakw concepts of intellectual property. In so doing, I contrast definitions and uses of intellectual property advocated by Canada’s legal establishment with those endorsed by Kwagiulth Dancers. I identify ways in which some Kwagiulth Dancers think legislation on intellectual property should be changed to accommodate traditional Kwakwaka’wakw forms of ownership. As well, I consider implications of the speeches for cultural revival.

 

 

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