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the world of music 43, 2001-3

Folk Music in Public Performance

Editor: Max Peter Baumann
Co-Editors: Nerthus Christensen, Dieter Christensen,
Linda Fujie, Jonathan Stock

ISSN 0043-8774
ISBN 3-86135-731-3

 

Content

Articles

The Editor
Preface

Max Peter Baumann
Musical Actors and Mental Constructs in the Context of Globalization

Bernhard Hanneken
Concepts and Contexts of the Tanz- & FolkFest Rudolstadt 

Owe Ronström
Concerts and Festivals: Public Performances of Folk Music in Sweden

Karl Neuenfeldt
From Silence to Celebration: Indigenous Australian Performers at the Woodford Folk Festival

Linda Fujie
Japanese Taiko Drumming in International Performance: Converging Musical Ideas in the Search for Success on Stage 

Tran Quang Hai
Vietnamese Music in Exile since 1975 and Musical Life in Vietnam since Perestroika

Martin Boiko
The Latvian Folk Music Movement in the 1980s and 1990s: From “Authenticity” to “Postfolklore” and Onwards

Svanibor Pettan
Encounter with “The Others” from Within: The Case of Gypsy Musicians in Former Yugoslavia

Ursula Hemetek
Music of Minorities Between Exclusion and Ethnoboom. Intercultural Encounter in Austria

Oskár Elschek
Folklore Festivals and Their Current Typology

Hans-Hinrich Thedens
„How Funny — I’m at a Folk Music Event and I Don’t Know a Soul Here!“: Musicians and Audiences at the International Folk Music Festivals in Norway

Josep Martí
Music and Ethnicity in Barcelona 

Manfred Bartmann
Spotlights on Festival History and Communication: Folk Legends Work on the Great Hits of Rock and Popular Music

 

Book Reviews (Jonathan Stock, ed.)

Neil Sorrell
Bakan, Michael B. Music of Death and New Creation: Experiences in the World of Balinese Gamelan Beleganjur

Tina K. Ramnarine
Manuel, Peter. East Indian Music in the West Indies: Tân-singing, Chutney and the Making of Indo-Caribbean Culture

Carlos Sandroni
Castelo-Branco, Salwa El-Shawan, ed.. Portugal e o mundo: o encontro de culturas na música / Portugal and the World: The Encounter of Cultures in Music

Henry Johnson
Tokumaru Yosihiko. L’Aspect mélodique de la musique de syamisen

Peter Ackermann
Sestili, Daniele. La voce degli dèi. Musica e religione nel rito giapponese del kagura

Kofi Agawu
Erlmann,Veit. Music, Modernity, and the Global Imagination: South Africa and the West

Susanne Fürniss
Floyd, Malcolm, ed.. Composing the Music of Africa. Composition, Interpretation and Realisation

Ricardo Canzio
Review Essay: The Power of Singing versus the Construction of a People’s Music — Trebinjac, Sabine. Le pouvoir en chantant 1: L’art de fabriquer une musique chinoise

Rachel Harris
Rees, Helen. Echoes of History: Naxi Music in Modern China

Nathan Hesselink
Song Bang-song. Korean Music: Historical and Other Aspects

Amanda Griffin
Gunderson, Frank, and Gregory Barz, eds.. foreword by Terence Ranger. Mashindano! Competitive Music Performance in East Africa

Nicola Dibben
Fikentscher, Kai. “You Better Work!”: Underground Dance Music in New York City

Ruth Davis
Shelemay, Kay Kaufman. Let Jasmine Rain Down, Song and Remembrance among Syrian Jews

Helen Rees
Kruth, Patricia, and Henry Stobart, eds. Sound


Briefly Mentioned

Daniele Sestili
de Ferranti, Hugh. Japanese Musical Instruments

Yu Siu Wah
Mittler, Barbara. Dangerous Tunes: The Politics of Chinese Music in Hong Kong, Taiwan and the People’s Republic of China since 1949

Razia Sultanova
Simon, Artur, ed.. The Berlin Phonogramm-Archiv, 1900-2000: Collections of Traditional Music of the World


Bibliography

Marin Marian-Balasa
Romanian Ethnomusicologies: A Briefly Commented Bibliography of Academic Literature Published in International Languages

About the Contributors

 

Abstracts

Local Musical Traditions in The Globalization Process
 
Festivals, Musical Actors and Mental Constructs in the Process of Globalization
Max Peter Baumann

Today regional traditions interrelate with musical diversity and intercultural music making and improvisation. In an era of tourism, migration, festivals, technologically determined globalization and a world that is growing smaller, the conceptualization of culture and region is expressed through music in highly differentiated ways. The region in which music is made can be differentiated from the (trans)region, which is represented symbolically through music.

Concepts and Contexts of the Tanz&FolkFest Rudolstadt
Bernhard Hanneken

Festivals abound. Festivals on traditional and religious music, on music from Africa and Asia, festivals of vocal music and of brass bands. And then there is the Tanz&FolkFest Rudolstadt in Thuringia (in the former GDR). A festival with an open concept – with the result that some dub it “a festival of festivals.” Based on a history of (state) dance festivals that dates back to 1955, Rudolstadt rejuvenated its main cultural activities after the German reunification and changed its name from Tanzfest to Tanz&FolkFest. This article looks back at its history and thus describes an event that is quite unique in the current festival circuit.

Concerts and Festivals: Public Performances of Folk Music in Sweden
Owe Ronström, (with contributions by Krister Malm and Dan Lundberg)

This article deals with public performances of folk music in Sweden. After a few introductory remarks on events as study objects, follows a brief historical survey of some main forms or formats of such performances. An analytical model is then presented, which is used to explain some of the changes that has occurred in public presentations of folk music in Sweden. Then the modern folk music festival is examined, a type of event that in short time has been spread all over the world. Folk music festivals, it is argued, can be read as texts, complex as they are, full of significance, pregnant with meaning. But they can also be seen as instruments, powerful tools for change, manipulation, for overriding old power structures and cultural borders, as well as setting up new.

From Silence to Celebration: Indigenous Australian Performers at the Woodford Folk Festival
Karl Neuenfeldt

Presently in Australia there are a range of performance opportunities available to Australia’s two Indigenous peoples: Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders. Folk festivals in particular currently provide an important outlet for their talents as musicans, storytellers, and dancers. This chapter examines the Murri Program at the Woodford Folk Festival, the largest in the southern hemisphere. Highlighted are the insights of a key organiser of the Murri Programme, Walbira Watts, detailing how she negotiates and navigates the complex issues of politics, protocols, programming, and personalities. It is argued the Murri Programme is an historically notable change from exclusion to inclusion and plays a positive role in ethnogenesis and the construction of Aboriginality.

Japanese Taiko Drumming in International Performance: Converging Musical Ideas in the Search for Success on Stage
Linda Fujie

Since the 1970s groups of taiko drummers, playing various sizes of Japanese traditional drums and other instruments in a choreographed stage presentation, have toured throughout the world and enjoyed unprecedented success in countless festivals and concert halls outside of Japan. Elements of their performance that appeal to international audiences include their emphasis on an aesthetic based on samurai values, an aesthetic that stresses discipline, hard physical and mental training, group coordination and perfectionism. Taiko groups illustrate well the convergence of often conflicting musical values in the emergence of local groups on the international stage. What is considered locally important may lose importance before an international audience in favor of a more cliché-oriented “national“ image.

Vietnamese Music in Exile since 1975 and Musical Life in Vietnam since Perestroika
Trân Quang Haï

The exile of some millions of Vietnamese refugees after the fall of Saigon in 1975 gave birth to a new type of music outside of Vietnam. Traditional music has been in regression because of the lack of interest among youngsters. Pop music, on the other hand, is flourishing, especially in the United States, where there is a big concentration of Vietnamese emigrants. Contemporary music in the Western idiom is in its early stages. In Vietnam, pop music has come back since around 1990, with perestroika. Traditional music has also gained in popularity due to the efforts made by the Institute of Musicology (Viên Âm nhac) in Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam, and thanks to a number of festivals organized in main cities.

The Latvian Folk Music Movement in the 1980s and 1990s: From “Authenticity” to “Postfolklore” and Onwards
Martin Boiko

In the 1970s a new folk music revival movement emerged in Latvia that opposed the official Soviet amateur art that was financed and controlled by the totalitarian state. ‘Authenticity’ was the catchword of the new movement, which soon became a factor of national identity and a latent protest movement against the Soviet regime. This article describes the relationships between the new movement and Soviet amateur art and the aesthetical and ideological contradictions within the new movement itself, as well as the development of an outstanding musician–Ilga Reizniece, leader of the popular group I??i—as a case study.

Encounter with “The Others” from Within: The Case of Gypsy Musicians in Former Yugoslavia
Svanibor Pettan

This essay is composed of four thematic circles. The first circle provides an introduction to the issue of “Otherness” in folk music research in the territories of what was the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. The second circle points to the features of “Otherness” associated with Gypsy musicians and presents some research approaches to their music and musicianship. The third circle focuses on Gypsy musicians in Kosovo and presents one specific approach to the question of their musical taste. The fourth circle concerns the issue of representation based on the humanitarian project Kosovo Roma.
Gypsy musician’s perception of their own music directly contradicted the values advocated by folk music researchers, thus their musicianship was often subjected to negative interpretations. It is much closer to the holistic perspective advocated by an anthropologically conceived ethnomusicology. Gaining insight into the musicianship of these “Others from within” has the potential to overcome the nationally determined scope of research which is still dominant in the territories of former Yugoslavia, and lead to a broader look at the musical practices of other ethnic/national groups.

Music of Minorities Between Exclusion and Ethnoboom. Intercultural Encounter in Austria
Ursula Hemetek

Austria is a country with a long multicultural tradition. There are many minority groups, most of them performing “their” traditional music as a marker of identity. In the area of public performance there are two main strategies for presenting traditional music of minorities. They are called “consuming multiculturalism” and “the informative strategy” in this paper. These strategies are described by using examples from the Burgenland Croats, an autochthonous minority, and from the Bosnian refugee community.

Folklore Festivals and Their Current Typology
Oskár Elschek

This article is concerned with a special type of festivals that are related to popular music events and established mainly in the 1950s. Changing artistic and medial interests turn now to traditional art and music that is based upon and expressed in the rising revival movement. The new genre had to find and develop new stage, scenic, and theatrical forms for folk music presentation. Preconditions of the revival movement and festivals included: a better knowledge of folk music, exhaustive collecting and study, medial practice, the involvement of specialists, the support by regional or other authorities, etc. Traditional and new repertory, music, customs, dance, individual and collective engagement with folk art as well as different cultural and social preferences make up the basis of the festivals. The festival movement in Slovakia, with about 90 festivals per year, covers a large range of events aimed at presenting  the “authentic,” village groups, ensembles, children plays, competitions concerning instruments, instrumental music, dance, regional programs, national, international and other kinds of performances. Exhibitions, folk art markets, handicrafts, presentation of instrument makers and many other events supplement the festivals. They are accompanied by special publications including, apart from printed matter, records, CD collections, and videos. This article describes and analyzes the program structures of these festivals. A special and important aspect is the cooperation between festival organizers and ethnomusicologists, which brings remarkable advantages for both sides, especially regarding the preparation of comprehensive programs, workshops, conferences and audio-visual documentation of festivals.

“How Funny—I am at a Folk Music Event and I Don’t Know a Soul Here!:” Musicians and Audiences at the International Folk Music Festivals in Norway
Hans-Hinrich Thedens

Two international folk music festivals were established in Norway in the end of the 1980s, both by people from the traditional Norwegian music scene, and both with the goal to win new audiences for this music. Both have had remarkable success, but while many urban members of the audience now enjoy both foreign and Norwegian music at the festivals, the traditional musicians have not embraced them. They do not form a large part of the audience and they are not offering the kind of stageable productions the festival programmers are looking for. As a consequence the festivals concentrate increasingly on local audiences.

Music and Ethnicity in Barcelona
Josep Martí

The musical practices of a given place do not always correspond with the idea people might have about the “musical culture” of that place. That lack of correspondence produces clear contradictions in the ways in which reality is interpreted. Sometimes the problem resides in ideologized ethnic interpretations and sometimes in the use of conceptual categories that perhaps, in an unconscious manner, are also deeply influenced by ethnic ideologies. Huntington's thesis, for instance, serves to illustrate the easiness with which people today politically instrumentalize the idea of “culture.”
The musical life of every city that can be considered modern, complex and fully integrated in the globalized world, constitutes a valuable and useful field of analysis of all these ethnic narratives. This article focuses on this subject and attempts to give some critical views about such categories through the example of Barcelona.

Spotlights On Festival History and Communication: Folk Legends Work on the Great Hits of Rock and Popular Music
Manfred Bartmann

Throughout the years some of the milestones of rock music have been interpreted by English, Irish and Scottish folk legends. These somehow “traditionalized” cover versions allow us to experience highly individual or regional styles of playing at first hand. Being widely known, almost evergreens, they bear the chance to drag the audience’s attention away from the song as such and to focus on how the artist handles it. Secondly these examples encourage us to examine the history of folk festivals, especially how dialogue is and was created between “modernists” and traditionalists, between traditional folk music and “global pop.” With reference to this some mechanisms which determine group communications are considered. As far as the British Isles are concerned, folk musicians seem to have been in a dialogue with rock and popular music since the rise of these latter styles.

 

 

 

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