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the world of music 42, 2000-1

Gothic, Metal, Rap and Rave —
Youth Culture and Its Educational Dimensions

Guest Editor: Martina Claus-Bachmann

 

Content

Articles

The Guest Editor
Preface

Martina Claus-Bachmann
Cultural Identity and Educational Possibilities in Humanistic Studies

Ansgar Jerrentrup
Gothic — Forms and Backgrounds

Friedrich Neumann
The Roots of Hip hop: Origins, Characteristics and Creative Processes

Ansgar Jerrentrup
Techno Music: Its Special Characteristics and Didactic Perspectives

Bettina Roccor
Heavy Metal: Forces of Unification and Fragmentation within a Musical Subculture

Stefanie Rhein
“Being a Fan is More than That” — Fan-Specific Involvement with Music

Gunther Diehl
“...the fleeting association in a flash of inspiration”: On the Dimension of Aesthetic Intensity in Music-Related Expressive Forms of Youth Culture

Susanne Binas
Youth Subcultures are Dead? — On the Cultural Logic of the “Generation Z” and the Consequences for Music Educational Concepts

Tamara Kurz
Der Tod und das Mädchen — Dramatic Expression of the Gothic Subculture in School Instruction


Book Reviews (Jonathan Stock, ed.)

Timothy Rice
Steven M. Friedson. Dancing Prophets: Musical  Experience in Tumbuka Healing. Chicago

Tina K. Ramnarine
Helen Myers. Music of Hindu Trinidad: Songs from the India Diaspora. Chicago 

Elizabeth Mackinlay
Peter Manuel, with Kenneth Bilby and Michael Largey. Carribbean Currents: Carribbean Music from Rumba to Reggae. Philadelphia

Ted Solis
Joep Bor, ed. with Suvarnaslata Rao, Wim van der Meer, and Jane Harvey (co-authors). The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas. Wyastone Leys, Monmouth, UK 

Books briefly mentioned, compiled by Jonathan Stock


Video and CD Reviews (Janet Sturman, ed.)

Amelia Maciszewski
Khyal: Classical Singing of North India. One Video Cassette. ETHNO

Robert Metil
Rakoto Frah: Flute Master of Madagascar. Globe Style (Ace Records Ldt.)

Evan Ziporyn
Music of the Gambuh Theater. The Gambuh Ensemble of Batuan's Village Temple. Vital Records

About the Authors

 

Abstracts

Cultural Identity and Educational Possibilities in Humanistic Studies
Martina Claus-Bachmann

Based on current observations made in classrooms, this article attempts to theoretically classify the more recent interpretations of the concepts “culture” and “cultural identity,” thus developing a new cognitive framework that could be applied to the didactics and methods of music instruction in general education schools in Germany. In this, music, as a form of cultural expression, is considered a part of a “Grenzmarkenvorrat” (supply of identity-borderline markers), that is, as something that marks the identity of youth. Points of orientation points include the cultural systems in which youths prefer to move and not the bourgeois culture of dominance that determines teaching curricula and teacher education. An example of pragmatic action in everyday school life is provided by a multimedia project produced by a working group of students on the topic of cultural identity.

Gothic and Dark Music: Forms and Background
Ansgar Jerrentrup

Within music-oriented youth subcultures, the Gothics and Darks represent an extraordinary phenomenon. This is shown not only in their external behavior in scene-related gatheirings, but also in their music, particularly in Dark Wave and the “dark” and secretive messages that are to be transmitted through it.

Hip hop: Origins, Characteristics and Creative Processes
Friedrich Neumann

Originating in the United States, rap music first began to spread throughout Europe in the early 1990s and eventually became an important musical means for young people to express their feelings. The over-thirty generation, however, viewed the music with condescension, feeling that such repetitive rhythms and restricted use of harmony formed an inferior kind of popular music. This article examines the significant structural and content-related features of hip hop, contrasting them in the context of the musical value systems of Europe and Africa.

Techno Music: Its Special Characteristics and Didactic Perspectives
Ansgar Jerrentrup

First I will examine here the characteristics typical of the music and general scene of techno. Then the didactic perspectives and concrete instructional approaches of this music will be introduced.

Heavy Metal: Forces of Unification and Fragmentation within a Musical Subculture
Bettina Roccor

The history of heavy metal reaches back to the 1960s. An independent cultural practice developed in the 1970s and experienced its height during the 1980s, declining in popularity in the course of the following decade. Today the heavy metal scene in Germany is a multifaceted cultural landscape in which a diversity of styles that developed over three decades coexist side by side, more or less peacefully. In spite of their many differences, most fans feel themselves to be members of one family because all heavy metal styles are based on the same basic musical patterns, the values supporting their culture have remained predominantly the same and the music’s negative image has unified the fans in their indignation.

“Being a Fan is More than That”: Fan-Specific Involvement with Music
Stefanie Rhein

In the research project introduced here, being a teenie fan is understood as membership in a youth culture that defines itself through musical taste, specific approaches to popular music, the appropriation of specific competencies regarding, and knowledge of, a favorite kind of music and having these at one’s disposal. Using some central results of a survey of 217 teenie fans and non-fans in Germany on a multimedia computer, it can be shown that teenie fandom means active music-related behavior that is carried out in the social text of a fan group or fan community. Through this, common prejudices against fans can be contradicted, for example, that they are passive daydreamers who lack an identity, have little social contact and who are more interested in particular stars than in the music itself.

“...the fleeting association is a flash of inspiration...”: On the Dimension of Aesthetic Intensity in Music-Related Expressive Forms of Youth Culture
Gunther Diehl

A double thesis forms the starting point of this article. The first is that youths carry out their membership in subcultural scenes by individually active participation in lifestyles and expressive forms. The construction of reality in this context—independent from the specific stylistic genre—is always aesthetically determined. This fact is discussed here with fundamental cultural-philosophical thoughts on intensity as a category of aesthetic experience. That is, intensity is regarded as a state of suspense between direct emotional arousal and the intentionally heightened consciousness of this process, referring to the work of Ludger Heidbrink. The second thesis involves the concept of “atmosphere” (within an ecological aesthetic of nature) as stressed by Gernot Böhme, which seems particularly helpful for an explanatory approach to the phenomenon of the music of youth. The thoughts expressed here lead to a plea for a dialogue-oriented ethic of respect that is virtually dependent upon the double poles of emotional affect and intellectual consciousness.

Youth Subcultures are Dead!? On the Cultural Logic of “Generation Z” and the Consequences for Music Educational Concepts
Susanne Binas

Against the background of academic involvement with phenomena of popular music among youth and experiences made by the author in continuing education for music teachers, the changes, problems and limits of teaching about popular music in the school are addressed. In this process, our attention focuses on problems that result from the fact that popular music, as a cultural practice of teenagers, is a subtle method of socialization for adolescents. As a result, when current forms of popular music are made the object of instructional activity, they can also create distances and thus lead to (unwanted) cultural disagreements in the classroom. What does it mean to objectively “mediate” or teach about popular music? Issues will be raised concerning current youth culture and corresponding transformations in musical style—particularly the eclectic youth (music) cultures of the 1990s. In contrast to earlier youth cultures, in which characteristic cultural behavior represented an affront to adults and society in general, the youth cultures of the 1990s can hardly be understood in the sense of “classic” subculture research.

Der Tod und das Mädchen: Dramatic Expression of the Gothic Subculture in School Instruction
Tamara Kurz

Within the youth subculture of “gothic,” elements of occultism, the romantic transfiguration of the Middle Ages and a preference for the morbid and fantastic horror stories are mixed together into a fascinating blend. The predominant color is black, as the expression of a melancholic and gloomy feeling towards life. In gothic music as well, gloom is represented through a mixture of styles, including gothic metal, medieval music and Celtic music. In a school in Germany, we developed a major theatrical project that dealt with a circle of themes revolving around death, expulsion and destruction. Selected as the means for expression were poems and modern dance.

 

 

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