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the world of music 41, 1999-3

Music, Travel, and Tourism

Guest Editor: Mark F. DeWitt

 

Content

 

Articles

Mark F. DeWitt
Preface

Vicki L. Brennan 
Chamber Music in the Barn: Tourism, Nostalgia, and the Reproduction of Social Class

Timothy J. Cooley 
Folk Festival as Modern Ritual in the Polish Tatra Mountains

Mark F. DeWitt 
Heritage, Tradition and Travel: Louisiana French Culture Placed on a California Dance Floor

Judith Cohen
Constructing a Spanish Jewish Festival: Music and the Appropriation of Tradition

Jeff Todd Titon
"The Real Thing": Tourism, Authenticity and Pilgrimage Among the Old Regular Baptists at the 1997 Smithsonian Folklife Festival

Martin Stokes
Music, Travel and Tourism: An Afterword


Book Reviews (Jonathan Stock, ed.)

James Porter
Irén Kertész Wilkinson. Vásár van elottem: Egyéni alkatások és társadalmi kontextusok egy del-magyaroszági oláhcigány lassú dalban. The Fair is Ahead of Me: Individual Creativity and Social Contexts in the Performances of a Southern Hungarian Vlach Gypsy Slow Song

Timothy J. Cooley
Svaibor Pettan, ed. Music, Politics, and War: Views from Croatia

J. Lawrence Witzleben
Frances R. Aparicio. Listening to Salsa: Gender, Latin Popular Music, and Puerto Rican Cultures

Suzel Ana Reily
Averill Gage. A Day for the Hunter. A Day for the Prey. Popular Music and Power in Haiti

Rainer Polak
Thomas Hale A. Griots and Griottes: Masters of Words and Music

Jonathan Stock
Books briefly mentioned


CD Reviews (Janet Sturman, ed.)

Bart Barendregt
Recording Review Essay: Sounds from the Indonesian Archipelago; Musical Monographs, Common Themes and New Contexts

Nancy Wills
Casta: I am Gypsy. Lorenzo (Cano) Salazar, Paco Salazar and Juan Antonio Salazar. Recorded by José Luis Garrido and Freddy Martinez. Alula Record


Institutions

Bernhard Hanneken
Stadt Rudolstadt, Kulturdezernat "Tanz&FolkFest Rudolstadt (Member of the European Forum of Worldwide Music Festivals)


About the Authors

 

Abstracts

Chamber Music in the Barn: Tourism, Nostalgia, and the Reproduction of Social Class
Vicki L. Brennan

This paper considers the narrative strategies used by tourists attending a chamber music festival held on Washington’s Olympic Peninsula. Such tourists use nostalgia to construct notions of “country folk,” “classical music,” and “life on the farm,” constructions formed by political, cultural, and class struggles that may be found in many regions of the United States. By looking at the distinctions made between urban and rural places, people and things, I show how nostalgia and narrative work together with idealized visions of farm life to distinguish people, to put one group in their place while asserting the superiority of another, and to reinforce and maintain class distinctions.

 
Folk Festival as Modern Ritual in the Polish Tatra Mountains
Timothy J. Cooley

In this study, I interpret a large annual folklore festival in the Tatra Mountains of Poland as a modern ritual that is similar to more traditionally recognized calendric rituals. Key to my interpretation of festivals is the local history of tourism and the emergence of the tourism as the region’s major industry. I show how individuals from indigenous families of the Tatra region use tourist festivals to symbolically and ritually create, preserve, and represent their unique identity in the face of a changing world.

Heritage, Tradition, and Travel: Louisiana French Culture Placed on a California Dance Floor
Mark F. DeWitt

In the last ten to fifteen years what began as music-making and dance by a small enclave of Louisiana Creole immigrants nostalgic for their former homes has led to a disproportionate profusion of Cajun and zydeco dance music in urban northern California. Clifford’s “traveling cultures” metaphor provides a point of departure for viewing this phenomenon, the work both of immigrants and of cultural outsiders. Musical and dance practices contribute to “a sense of place” for all. In terms of “heritage” and “tradition” as Kirshenblatt-Gimblett has refined them, the scene for Louisiana French music and dance in California fulfills its heritage roles as reminder of the past for immigrants and “virtual tourism” for others, and it breaks through these roles when manifesting a new tradition.

Constructing a Spanish Jewish Festival: Music and the Appropriation of Tradition
Judith R. Cohen

Over the past decades, a phenomenon of “discovering” hidden, or “Crypto”, Jewish communities in Spain and Portugal has developed. While in a few cases, this has resulted in newly functioning Jewish groups, it has also led to the formation of imagined Jewish communities, celebrated by tourist itineraries and festivals, in others. The use of music as an appropriation and an identity marker in two imagined Iberian Jewish communities in Spain, and their festivals, is the main focus of this paper. It touches as well on some general issues: the anthropology of tourism, appropriation, authenticity, representation, and ownership. Underlying these issues is the ongoing question of whether considering representations such as those described here a cultural expression in their own right, is really respectful to the cultural practitioners themselves.
In this paper, the use of  Jewish and other music in two of these towns, Ribadavia and Hervás, and their festivals, will be examined. First, it seems helpful to take a brief look at recent developments in scholarly approaches to tourism´s impact on both traditional arts and perceptions of authenticity and of history. One scholarly trend reflects a growing aversion to any anthropological statement which resembles a value judgment: changes, even outright inventions are not negative, they are transformations, or new cultural expressions. A different approach, much less apparent in anthropology and its related disciplines, deplores anything identifiable as a falsification of known facts, refusing it any new creative status (see, for example, de Hervás 1997). Thus, harnessing and reshaping memory may be seen in neutral, implicitly positive, terms by one group of scholars, and as reprehensible by another.

“The Real Thing”: Tourism, Authenticity, and Pilgrimage among the Old Regular Baptists at the 1997 Smithsonian Folklife Festival
Jeff Todd Titon

In 1997 six Old Regular Baptists from southeast Kentucky demonstrated their traditional lined-out hymnody at the Smithsonian’s Festival of American Folklife. The group’s appearance there, timed to coincide with the release of an album on Smithsonian Folkways, was successful because they shared a common purpose with the Festival organizers: they were “the real thing” and the power of their singing created a human community where before there only was an idea of one. Upon returning home, a member of their group wrote out their trip in response to a request from a member of her church. She framed their experiences in terms of travel, tourism, and pilgrimage. The Smithsonian Festival has been the focus of a small but growing critical literature from which this essay draws its discussions of authenticity, authority, reflexivity, folklore, and festival policy and administration.

Music, Travel and Tourism: An Afterword
Martin Stokes

Discussing the articles in this special issue with reference to the more general literature on tourism and travel, the article presents tourism ethnomusicology as a challenging and complex field of study, indicating some of its breadth and diversity, and some of the possible directions in which it could go. It argues throughout for more nuanced ethnographic research, such as has emerged over the last decade in the anthropology of tourism, taking into account at least some of the motivations of actors and agents in tourist encounters and exchanges, and the specificities of music as a form of social engagement. The article focuses in particular on issues surrounding authenticity and representation, locality, nostalgia, work, leisure, the payment of musicians, and tourism as secular pilgrimage.

 

 

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